Dimethyl Isosorbide DMI and Hair Loss
Background: Dimethyl Isosorbide (DMI) as a solvent and penetrant, allowing topical hair loss ingredients such as minoxidil to be able to penetrate effectively through the skin irtually free of Propylene Glycol. Propylene glycol is a common solvent found in most topical minoxidil products. Many have reported scalp inflammatory conditions (severe itch, flakes, redness) after long term use. By replacing propylene glycol with DMI, the topical formula will not cause scalp irritation or dryness. The DMI increases absorption of all active ingredients through the scalp and into the hair follicle. DMI is a solvent compound that has been extensively researched and has been "Shown to enhance penetration of the active ingredients through the upper level scalp epidermis. It does not however, promote penetration of the ingredients into the bloodstream, therefore DMI produces a much lower incidence of skin irritation."
DIMETHYL ISOSORBIDE is found in these product types: Facial Moisturizer/Treatment, Sunless Tanning, Skin Fading/Lightener, Around-eye Cream, Styling Gel/Lotion, Anti-aging, Sunscreen/Tanning Oil, Acne Treatment, Body Wash/Cleanser.
According to Dr. Klein, the new REMOX formulation contains Dimethyl Isorbide (DMI) as a solvent and penetrant, therefore allowing it to be virtually free of Propylene Glycol. The new Re-Mox formula will not cause scalp irritation or dryness. The DMI increases absorption of all active ingredients through the scalp and into the hair follicle. DMI is a solvent compound that has been extensively researched and has been "shown to enhance penetration of the active ingredients through the upper level scalp epidermis. It does not however, promote penetration of the ingredients into the bloodstream, therefore DMI produces a much lower incidence of skin irritation." The new formulation with DMI and Tretinoine increases the penetration of the active ingredients making Re-Mox Sprays even more effective than they were before. Therefore, Dr. Klein has been able to successfully reduce the Minoxidil concentration to 3% while maintaining equal or better results than achieved by the traditional 5% Minoxidil Sprays. The new formula with DMI allows a finer, lighter quality cosmetic spray which is totally non-irritating.
1) Codiffusion of propylene glycol and dimethyl isosorbide in hairless mouse skin. Squillante E, Needham T, Maniar A, Kislalioglu S, Zia H. Department of Applied Pharmaceutics, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA.
The in vitro percutaneous fluxes of propylene glycol (PG), cis-oleic acid (OA) and dimethyl isosorbide (DI) were determined and their effect on nifedipine (N) flux and lag time evaluated. PG, OA and DI flux through hairless mouse (HM) skin was measured in vitro by beta-scintigraphy and N permeation was measured by HPLC under finite and infinite dose conditions. Evaluation of each of the solvents separately showed that pure DI possessed the inherent ability to traverse the skin (12% in 24 h). For the tested formulation after 24 h, 57% of the PG and 40% of the DI had permeated across the skin with nearly linear permeation between 4 and 18 h and the relative order of permeation was PG > DI > N. DI permeation was further aided in the presence of PG and OA. N flux was dependent on concomitant solvent permeation. Over a 24-h test period a dose dependent response was observed for N, with 4.9-15.6 mg of N delivered from the lowest and highest doses, respectively, and the highest dose yielding zero-order flux of 146 (g/h per cm2).
2) Multicenter study to evaluate efficacy and irritation potential of DMI based benzoyl peroxide 4% cream. Sawleshwarkar SN, Salgaonkar V, Oberai CM. Department of Skin & STD, Grant Medical College, Mumbai
"After application of traditional formulations water and other volatile solvents evaporate leaving behind a residue containing benzoyl peroxide particles. The hydrophase base of Brevoxyl contains dimethyl isosorbide that is water-soluble but is much less volatile than water. The solvent dimethyl isosorbide dissolves the crystals of benzoyl peroxide, which helps in reducing the irritation and also improving biovailability. Evidence from this study indicates that only a small percentage of patients reported irritation after the use of unique brnzoyl peroxide containing solvent dimethyl isosorbide. A satisfactory response was reported as early as two weeks and most of the patients had a very satisfactory response after six weeks and were willing to continue the treatment. This supports the theory that the hydrophase formulation in Brevoxyl helped to decrease the irritation associated with use of benzoyl peroxide."